Tài liệu ôn Tiếng Anh thi công chức

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  1. THE GRAMMAR REVIEW OF LEVEL 3 I. TENSES: 1. The Simple Present Tense : simple form (except be and the third person singular) 2. The Simple Present Continuous Tense : am/is/are + present participle 3. The Simple Past Tense : past form 4. The Past Continuous Tense : was/were + present participle 5. The Near Future Tense : am/is/are + going to + infinitive form 6. The Simple Future Tense : will/shall + infinitive form 7. The Present Perfect Tense: : have/has + past participle 8. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense : have/has been + present participle 9. The Past Perfect Tense : had + past participle II. NOUNS: a. Singular and Plurals Nouns b. Uncountable and Countable Nouns c. Possessive case Singular countable noun d. There is (was) + Singular uncountable noun e. Uncountable nouns, consist of: . Drinks : tea, beer, wine, water, coffee, milk . Foods : fish, bread, cheese, ham, meat, sugar, salt . Things : toothpaste, soap, shampoo . Materials : paper, wood, wool, plastic . General words: : information, music, money, f. There are (were) + Plural Nouns g. How much + Singular Uncountable Nouns h. How many + Plural Countable Nouns III. PRONOUNS: a. Personal Pronouns ( i t nh n x ng) . Subject h ng : I, you, he, she, it, we, they . Object t n ng : Me, you, him, her, it, us, them b. Impersonal Pronouns ( i t v nh n x ng) (It) It is/was + adj/noun + to infinitive It is difficult to study E : It is a pleasure to live : It is/was + adj + that + clause It is obvious that : Subject + Verb + it +adj/noun + to infinitive I find it necessary to display d w d w dv : ơ ấy ầ ế y á ử í ể q á Subject + Verb + it + adj + that clause 1
  2. I feel it strange that she doesn't want to travel with us: ơ ấy ơ ấy ơ d v ơ c. Possessive Pronouns ( i t s h u) : mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs d. Demonstrative Pronouns ( i t h nh : this, that, these, those e. Indefinite Pronouns ( i t t nh : all, both, each, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, someone, f. Relative Pronouns ( i t li n h : who, whom, which, that, whoever, whomever, whichever g. Reflexive Pronouns ( i t ph n th n : myself; yourself; himself; herself; itself; ourselves; yourselves; themselves h. Reciprocal Pronouns ( i t t ng qu n : each other; one another i. Interrogative Pronouns ( i t nghi v n : who, which, what, where j. Negative pronouns ( i t ph nh : no-one, nobody, neither, none, nothing IV. ARTICLE a. Definite article (m o t x nh) : the b. Indefinite articles (m o t t nh) : a (before consonant sound) : an (before vowel sound) V. PREPOSITIONS: a. Simple Prepositions: . Prepositions of Time: on (vào ngày), in (trong vịng,vào tháng-năm , at vào lú m y giờ , by tr ớ m y giờ , since t khi , during suốt , for trong kho ng , about vào kho ng , ago h y , before tr ớ , after (sau), past qu ,h n , till tới , until ho tới , . Prepositions of Place or position: in trong , at h nào , on tr n , near gần , by gần n , next to n nh , beside n nh , against dự vào under d ới , below phí d ới , over tr n , above phí tr n , inside (bên trong), outside (bên ngồi), behind ằng s u , between gi h i , among gi m , . Prepositions of direction: across thẳng qu , through (xuyên qua), around (bao quanh qua), to tới , into (vào trong), towards về phí , onto (lên), from t , up (lên), down xuống . Prepositions of manner: by i ằng: us, r, tr in, ship, pl ne , on i ằng: foot, house k , in i ằng: r, t xi; viết ằng: ink, pen il,nĩi ằng, VI. VERBS: a. Auxiliary Verbs: do/does/ did b. Defective Verbs ( ng t khiếm khuyết) c. Regular and Inregular Verbs ( ng t quy t và t quy t t) d. to be able to + Infinitive ng t to be ĩ th hi th : present simple– past simple – future simple – present perfect) e. Verb + Infinitive : care, decide, forget, hope, learn, mean, plan We hope to see you soon; I don’t re to see him again f. : advise, cause, command, encourage, force, get Verb + (pro) noun +Infinitive I advise you to see a doctor; He caused me to be late 2
  3. g. : Ask, beg, expect, promise, Verb + Infinitive OR Verb + (pro) noun +Infinitive want, wish She asked to come ho - She asked us to come h. USED TO + Infinitive q q á y ơ I used to get up e rly in the morning: T i t ng dậy sớm vào uổi s ng i. TO BE + USED TO + Ving (noun) (quen) I am used to getting up l te on Sund ys. : t i quen dậy tr vào h nhật. I am used to cold weather: t i quen với thời tiết l nh j. TO BE + USED TO + Infinitive ợ dù ể A knife is used to cut the cake: Con d o ợ sử dụng t nh k. TO BE + USED FOR + Ving ợ dù ể Scissors are used for cutting things: kéo ợ sử dụng t l. ự ầTO HAVE ế TO + Infinitive v ệ ì I have to get up e rly tomorrow. I’m going w y nd my tr in le ves t 7.30 m. TO GET + someone + TO DO something á ì Teac her gets students to do exercises n. TO HAVE/ HAVE GOT/ GET + object + past participle They got their car washed t the g r ge: Họ xe ến g r ợ rử o. HELP / LET / MAKE + Object + Simple form They help me do my ssigment: Họ giúp t i làm ng vi m nh He let me drive his r: Nĩ ho phép t i l i xe nĩ Teacher made us repeat the sentence several times. Thầy gi o t húng t i l p l i u này nhiều lần  Note: Sometime help is followed by to infinitive p. FEEL, HEAR, SEE, WAT CH + Object + Simple form ( present participle) I hear him come in: T i nghe nĩ i vào I hear him coming in: T i nghe nĩ ng i vào q. SAY and TELL SAY + something á ì Say something (to me) please (=speak to me ) Say something nice (= tell me something nice) He say that you are a very good student TELL + someone about something ể á ì Please tell me about your experiences : Làm n k ho t i về kinh nghi m n. r. SPEAK and TALK Talk about something. = Speak about something Speak is often used in the imperative with an adverb or adverbial phrase o Speak quietly, etc. o Speak as loud as you can 3
  4. Speak to him now s. DO and MAKE DO : di n t m t ho t ng làm hằng ngày nĩi hung hung kh ng ụ th MAKE : di n t m t ho t ng làm t o r m t i g ĩ t. Linking verbs + Adjective í To appear ĩ v , be (là), become tr n n , feel m th y , get kiếm ợ , grow mọ , tăng tr ng , lie nằm, nĩi dối , look (nhìn), remain vẫn ịn , seem (d ờng nh , smell ngửi, ĩ mùi , sound ĩ v , k u , stay ch u ng , taste n m , turn tr v Linking verbs th ờng ợ theo s u i adjectives th y ho tr ng t . u. Modal verbs: can, could, may, might, must, need, ought, shall, should, will, would. Ability kh năng : can, could, to be able to, will, would Obligation ổn phận : Must, need, have (has) to Advice lời khuy n : Should, ought to Probability r t ĩ th x y r : May, might, could Permission (cho phép) : Can, could, may (may is the most polite) Shall, will, would : Lần l ợt dùng ho ng i th 1, ng i ịn l i và di n t ề ngh l h sự v. Causative have (have something done) Di n t m t ng vi ợ làm ho m nh i ng ời kh . Ho tr tiền ho ng ời kh làm TO HAVE + object + past participle I had my room painted : T i ã ợ s n ăn phịng m nh. I had my hair cut : T i ã ợ t tĩ tr tiền ho họ VII. ADJECTIVES TOO + ADJ (+ FOR + SB) + TO INFINITIVE Structures: Subject + to be + Adjective I + + dj v + ADJ + ENOUGH + TO INFINITIVE HOW + DJ + ? Verb + ED or Verb + ING : Làm tính t Possessive Adjectives : my, your, his, her, its, our, their Indefinite Adjectives Used with plural countable nouns : several, many, few, a few Used with uncountable nouns : much, a great deal of, little, a little Used with both plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns: some, any,a lot of, enough . some + plural nouns - We use some with positive statements . any + uncountable nouns - We use any with negative statements and questions  THE STRUCTURES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 1/ Positive Form ấ y : AS + ADJECTIVE + AS 2/ Comparative Form ( p so s nh h n) Nhiều h n - Tính t m t vần: ADJECTIVE + ER + THAN Ít h n - Tính t m t vần: NOT SO (AS) + ADJECTIVE + AS Ít h n ho ằng - Tính t m t vần: NOT+ ADJECTIVE + ER + THAN 4
  5. Nhiều h n - Tính t nhiều vần: MORE + ADJECTIVE + THAN Ít h n - Tính t nhiều vần: LESS + ADJECTIVE + THAN Ít h n ho ằng - Tính t nhiều vần: NOT+ MORE + ADJECTIVE + THAN 3/ Superlative Form ấ yệ í vầ : THE + ADJECTIVE + EST í vầ : THE MOST/THE LEAST + ADJECTIVE Examples of irregular forms Adjectives Comparative Superlative Much/many More The most Few/little Less The least Good Better The best Bad Worse The worst ADJECTIVES Regular forms requiring 'ER' or 'EST' Comparative forms Superlative forms Important grammatical points Adjectives (ADJ + ER) (THE+ ADJ +EST) Adjectives with one syllable only THIN THINNER THE THINNEST Adjectives ending in a single FAT FATTER THE FATTEST consonant which must be doubled Adjectives with one syllable, but FIERCE FIERCER THE FIERCEST ending in E Adjectives with one syllable + Y FRIENDLY FRIENDLIER THE FRIENDLIEST (Y changes to I) ADJECTIVES - Regular forms requiring 'MORE' or 'THE MOST' Adjectives with more than one syllable Adjectives ending with ed or ing Comparative forms Superlative forms Adjectives (more/less ) (the most/the least ) Dangerous More/less dangerous The most/the least dangerous Bored More/less bored The most/the least bored (even though only one syllable is pronounced) Interesting More/less interesting The most/the least interesting VIII. ADVERBS: a. Adverbs of manner ể á Quietly y n l ng , loudly ầm ĩ , clearly (rõ ràng), rapidly (nhanh chĩng), poorly (nghèo nàn), happily h nh phú , angrily giận d , slowly hậm h p , carefully ẩn thận , fast (nhanh), hard tí h ự , h , by foot i ằng h n , etc. b. Adverbs of certainly ắ ắ Certainly h h n , definitely d t kho t , probably hầu nh h h n , 5
  6. undoubtedly (khơng hồi nghi), clearly (rõ ràng), obviously (rõ ràng), etc. c. dv d Almost hầu nh , little m t ít , enough , much, too (quá), partly phần nào , fully ầy , scarcely v mới , quite (hồn tồn), nearly gần, s p , just úng, hính , too (quá), hardly nghi m kh , very (r t) so, rather thà h n, thí h h n , et . d. dv q y x y Always (luơn luơn), usually th ờng th ờng , seldom (ít khi), ever t ng , never kh ng o giờ , normally th ng th ờng , often (luơn), frequently th ờng xuy n), rarely hiếm khi , sometimes i khi , etc – C tr ng t này i tr ớ ng t hính và s u to be. e. dv Upstairs (lên gác), downstairs xuống g , downtown xuống phố , here, there, nearby kh ng x , l n ận , everywhere kh p n i , in, out, etc. f. Adverbs of time today, tonight, tomorrow, yesterday, later rồi s u ĩ , now, soon (ngay), ago h y , all day ngày , not long (khơng lâu), for a while m t l t , since t l u , next week, last year, yearly hàng năm , etc g. Interrogative Adverb vấ why, where, how, when  Trong một câu, thứ tự vị trí của trạng từ thường đặt sau động từ như sau: VERB + PLACE + MANNER + FREQUENCY + TIME Ex: He is going to Japan by ship twice a day during December. IX. THE GERUND (V-ing – D  Giới từ + V-ing: He is good at diving ấy ỏ ặ She is font of climbing. Cơ ấy í  To mind + V-ing: Would you mind waiting ?: ợ é?  Dạng Ving dùng trong lời cấm ngắn hạn: No smoking; No fishing  Cấu trúc Go + V-ing: Go dancing; Go camping  Chủ ngữ giả “it” thay V-ing I w w d : á í  Ving tăng thơng tin cho danh từ đứng phía sau (vai trị tính từ quan hệ) B w : ơ ; w : y  Các động từ địi hỏi động từ theo sau là Ving ồ : avoid: tránh; enjoy: thíchthú, khối; * keep ế ụ ; admit: cho phép; escape: thốt; miss: ỡ, ợ ; appreciate: í ; imagine: ở ợ ; suggest ; consider: xem xét; (not) mind : ơ ; postpone: hỗn; deny: ; finish: hồn thành; give up: ỏ; put off: hỗn; stop: , ỏ; can’t stand: ơ ợ  Các động từ địi hỏi động từ theo sau là Ving HO C “V + to infinitive” ồ : start; begin: ắ ầ hate: ghét can’t bear: ơ ợ continue: ế ụ love: yêu stand: intend: dự neglect: ỏ ặ fancy: thích like: thích plan: dự remember: dislike: khơng thích prefer: í forget: quên 6
  7.  Note: WOULD + LIKE / LOVE / HATE / PREFER + TO INFINITIVE  stop, remember, forget , try, ể Gerund ặ “to infinitive” ĩ khác. H y á á ặ y Stop + to infinitive : ể ì – He stopped to eat: y ể ă Stop + gerund : ì – H d : ă Remember +to infinitive : ụ ý q v ệ He w v y w : ơ q v ế ơ ấy ỗ ầ Remember + gerund : ụ ý ồ v ệ q H w v y w : v ế ơ ấy ỗ ầ Forget + to infinitive : ụ ý ơ v ệ ơ ự ệ ợ I d w : ơ q y v ơ ấy dự y q Forget + gerund : ụ ý q v ệ q I d w : ơ q y v ơ ấy Try + to infinitive : ụ ý ắ á ì ơ ợ I d , w ’ Try + gerund : ụ ý ử x I d , w d ’  PREPOSITION+GERUND be/get used to: q v ; be accustomed to: q v ; be capable of: ă ; be tired of: ệ , á ; be bored with: chán; be afraid of: ợ; be fed up with: chán; be interested in: thích thú, quan tâm; be pleased with: hài lịng với; be excited about: ấ í v ; be responsible for: t á ệ v ;be rude to: ơ ỗ v ; be sorry for: be supposed to:dự , ợ ; be worried about: ắ v ; to look forward to: ơ ; to insist on: ă ă ; to succeed in: thành cơng trong; be made of: ợ , be angry with (at): t giận; be good at: ỏ v ; be bad at: é v ; be font of: í v ; diferent from (khác) X. CLAUSE a. Adjective clause b. F d I “ d ” Second conditionals (If clause) Third conditionals (If clause) XI. TAG – QUESTION – EXCLAMATORY SENTENSE XII. PASSIVE VOICE : ng t hính trong u h ng tive voi e hi th g th ng t to be trong u ng p ssive voi e hi th ĩ. XIII. DIRECT – INDIRECT SPEECH L ự ế – á ế * ở d S XIV. CONJUNCTION When (khi) – Before tr ớ khi – After (sau khi)–As soon as (ngay khi) - Although m dù Although m dù + SUBJECT + VERB Although it r ined lot, I went to the s hool: M dù trời m nhiều nh ng t i vẫn i họ .  Note: Nhiều khi t noi though ho even though thay cho although [ɔ:l'ðou] In spite of (despite) + Noun /Pronoun/ (This/ that/ what/ ), V+ ing In spite of (despite) the rain, I went to s hool: t h p trời m nh ng t i vẫn i họ . She w sn’t well, but In spite of this she went to work: C y kh ng ợ khỏe, nh ng dẫu vậy y vẫn i làm In spite of what I s id yesterd y, I still love you: t h p nh ng g h m qu nh ã nĩi, nh vẫn y u em. 7
  8. I didn’t get the jo in spite of having ll the ne ess ry qu lifi tions: T i kh ng kiếm ợ vi dẫu tơi cĩ năng lự XV. E – G (XEM THÊM) o ng inversion trong tiếng Anh là nh ng h o l n u trú m t u nhằm mụ í h nh n m nh. Trong tr ờng hợp này, d ng th nghi v n ĩ u trú nh s u: NG CH NG NG CH NH o ng là m t v n ề khĩ trong khi nghi n u ng ph p tiếng Anh, i t là với nh ng ng ời mới họ . S u ậy là m t số lo i o ng h y dùng: 1. o v Neither Sử dụng So và Neither h sự giống nh u gi h i h y trong số nhiều ng ời ho vật. So dùng trong u x nh positive phù hợp th u tr ớ theo u trú s u: So + tr ng t to be/modal + Subject Mary likes to travel. So do I. Fred is very nice. So am I. Mrs. Rich gave ten dollars. So did Tom. David has been in Turkey. So has Mike. I should study. So should you. Bill may have eaten too much. So may have Mary. Neither dùng trong u ph nh neg tive phù hợp th u tr ớ theo u trú : Neither + tr ng t to be/modal/modal have + Subject I don’t h ve to go. Neither does Bill. Joe isn’t very tall. Neither am I. I didn’t see her. Neither did he. John won’t sing. Neither will Charles. Bill won’t h ve e ten too much. Neither will have Mary. 8
  9. N I DUNG ƠN ẬP NG PHÁP IẾNG ANH ÌNH C Biên soạn: Võ Khắc Tiến, SGD ĐT Đà Nẵng Part I: VERB TENSES I. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE a. Form:  I, We, You, They+Verb (without to)  He, She, It + Verb +s/es - ng t hi hi n t i V1 Nếu h ngử ng i 3 số ít, t ph i th m "S" ho "es" s u ng t b.Usage:  hì hiện tại ơn diễn tả m t chân lý, m t sự thật hiển nhiên. Ex: + The sun rises in the East. + Tom comes from England. + I am a student.  hì hiện tại ơn diễn tả m t thĩi quen, m t h nh ng xảy ra thường xuyên ở hiện tại. Ex: + Mary often goes to shool by bicycle. + I get up early every morning. + What do you do every night? Lưu ý: a thêm "E " sau các ng t tận cùng l : O, ,X,CH, H. c. Các phĩ t thường ư c dùng chung với thì hiện tại ơn: Often, usually,frequently : thường + Always, constantly : luơn luơn. ometimes, occasionally : thỉnh thoảng. eldom, rarely : ít khi, hiếm khi. every day week,month : mỗi ng y tuần tháng Frequency Adverbs:(From 100% of the time to 0% of the time) 100% 0% always usually often sometimes seldom rarely never d. Negative Form ( hể phủ ịnh)  ối với ng t ặc biệt (BE,CAN,MAY ) ta thêm "NO " ngay sau ng t ĩ. Ex: He is a good pupil. He isn't a good pupil. My brother can swim. 9
  10. My brother can't swim.  ối với ng t thường, ta dùng tr ng t "DO" hoặc "DOE " tuỳ theo chủ ngữ. Ex: She doesn't like coffee. They don't want new shoes. e.Interrogative form ( hể nghi vấn)  ối với ng t ặc biệt , ta em nĩ ra ầu câu v thêm dấu "?". Ex: Are you tired now? Can Peter drive a car?  ối với ng t thường, ta thêm "DO" hoặc "DOE " v o ầu câu. (nhớ ưa ng t chính về nguyên mẫu) Ex: Her father likes tea. Does her father like tea? Exercise 1. Write the following sentences a) in the negative, b) in the interrogative. 1. We know the answer. 2. He usually has breakfast at 8 o’clock. 3. The bell rings at 8.30. 4. They feel cold. Exercise 2. Put the verb in brackets into the Present simple tense. 1. My little brother (collect) butterflies and stamps. 2. Mothers often (tell) small children stories before bedtime. 3. I think he (be) a kind man. 4. We (spend) our holidays in the country every year. 5. What this sentence (mean) ? 6. Ruth (not eat) eggs; they (make) her ill. Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences using the Present Simple tense. 1. They always 2. Why does that student always ? 3. Those girls never 4. Whenever he comes to see us 5. She usually II. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE 2. he Present Continuous ense ( hì hiện tại tiếp diễn) a. Form:  I + am  He, She, It + is + V-ing  We, You,They + are b. Usage: hì hiện tại tiếp diễn (H D) diễn tả m t h nh ng ang diễn ra v kéo d i m t thời gian ở hiện tại. (nĩ thường i kèm với các cụm t chỉ thời gian "NOW", " IGH NOW", "A THE MOMENT" "AT PRESENT" Ex: The children are playing football now. What are you doing at the moment?  hì n y cũng thường tiếp theo sau câu ề nghị, mệnh lệnh. Ex: Look! The child is crying. Be quiet! The baby is sleeping in the next room.  hì n y cịn ư c dùng ể diễn tả m t h nh ng sắp xảy ra (ở tương lai gần) Ex: He is coming tomorrow. My parents are planting trees tomorrow. 10
  11. Lưu ý: Khơng dùng thì H D với các ng t chỉ nhận thức, tri giác như: to be, see, hear, understand, know, like, want, glance, feel, think, smell, love, hate, prefer, realize, seem, remember, forget, believe, belong, own, possess, exist, need Với các ng t n y, ta thay bằng thì imple Present. Ex: I am tired now. She wants to go for a walk at the moment. Do you understand your lesson? Yes, I understand it now. Note: Non-progressive verbs a) I hear a bird. It is singing. CORRECT: I hear a bird right now. b) I’m hungry. I want a sandwich. INCORRECT: I am hearing a bird. c) This book belongs to Jim. (right now) Exercise 4. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Continuous tense 1. Look ! Somebody (come). 2. It (rain), take your umbrella. 3. Keep quiet ! We (listen) to the music. 4. What you (look) at ? 5. At this moment, we (do) exercise in English. Exercise 5. Put the verbs in the Present Continuous tense or the Present Simple tense. 1. It (rain), take your umbrella. 2. Don’t bother me, please, I (work). 3. I (believe) you are right. 4. They (have) lunch in the cafeteria now. 5. My sister (drink) milk everyday. 6. They often (thank) me for what I do for them. Exercise 6. Supply the correct verb forms: The simple Present Tense or The present continuous tense 1. I (do) an exercise on the present tenses at this moment and I (think) that I (know) how to use it now. 2. My mother sometimes (buy) vegetables at this market. 3. It (be) very cold now. 4. It (rain) much in Summer. It (rain) now. 5. Daisy (cook) some food in the kitchen at present. She always (cook) in the morning. III. THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSES III.1. The Simple Past Tense (Thì quá khứ đơn) a.Form: I, We, You, They + V2/Ved He, She, It + V2/Ved Nếu động từ có quy tắc: Ved Động từ bất qui tắc: cột 2 (V2) b. Usage: Thì quá khứ đơn diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra trong quá khứ, chấm dứt rồi và biết rõ thời gian. Ex: Tom went to Paris last summer My mother left this city two years ago. He died in 1980. c. Các phó từ đi kèm: Last (trước) , ago (cách đây), yesterday (hôm qua). d. Negative form (thể phủ định)  Đối với động từ đặc biệt, ta thêm "NOT" sau nó. Ex: He wasn't absent from class yesterday. I couldn't open the door last night.  Đối với động từ thường, ta đặt trợ động từ "DIDN'T" trước động từ chính. 11
  12. Ex: He didn't watch TV last night. She didn't go to the cinema with him last Sunday. e. Interrogative form (thể nghi vấn)  Đối với động từ đặc biệt, ta đem động từ đó ra đầu câu. Ex: Were they in hospital last month? Could she answer your questions then?  Đối với động từ thường, ta đặt trợ động từ "DID" ở đầu câu. Ex: Did you see my son, Tom? Lưu ý: Khi đổi sang phủ định và nghi vấn, nhớ đưa động từ chính về nguyên mẫu. III.2. The Past Continuous Tense (thì quá khứ tiếp diễn) a. Form: I, He, She, It + was + V_ing We, You, They + Were +V_ing b. Usage: Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn diễn tả:  Hành động đã xảy ra và kéo dài một thời gian ở quá khứ. Ex: Yesterday, Mr Moore was working in the laboratory all the afternoon. What were you doing from 3p.m to 6p.m yesterday?  Hành động đang xảy ra vào một thời điểm ở quá khứ. Ex: I was doing my homework at 6 p.m last Sunday. They were practising English at that time. What were you doing at this time yesterday?  Hành động đang xảy ra (ở quá khứ) thì có một hành động khác xen vào (hành động nào kéo dài hơn dùng Past Continuos, hành động nào ngắn hơn dùng Simple Past) Ex: When I came yesterday, he was sleeping. What was she doing when you saw her? As we were crossing the street, the policeman shouted at us.  Hai hành động xảy ra song song cùng một lúc ở quá khứ. Ex: Yesterday, I was cooking while my sister was washing the dishes. Lưu ý: không dùng thì này với các động từ chỉ nhận thức,tri giác. Thay vào đó,ta dùng thì Simple Past. Ex: When the students heard the bell, they left. He felt tired at that time. Exercise 7. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Simple tense. 1. I (be) the captain of the girl’s tennis team last year. 2. They (be) there nine months ago. 3. He ( come) to see me the day before yesterday. 4. Three days later I (leave) London. 5. “Where you (see) him ?” “ At the concert.” Exercise 8. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Continuous. 1. He (play) table-tennis at 6 o’clock yesterday morning. 2. What you both (do) at 10 o’clock this morning ? 3. When I saw him, he (sit) asleep in a chair. 4. He was at home. He (do) his homework. 5. While I (wait) for an answer, a knock came at the door. Exercise 9. Use the verbs in the Past Simple or the Past Continuous. 1. The old man (fall) as he (get) into the bus. 2. I saw a light in your house as I (pass). 3. He often (visit) us when he (live) in Danang City. 4. The light (go) out when we (study) our lesson. 5. You (learn) your lesson when I (phone) you ? - Supply the correct verb forms: Simple Past or Past Continuous. 12
  13. 1. When I (arrive) at his house, he still (Sleep) 2. The light (go) out while we (have) dinner. 3. Bill (have) breakfast when I (stop) at his house this morning. 4. As we (cross) the street, we (see) an accident. 5. Tom (see) a serious accident while he (stand) at the bus stop. IV. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE 3. he Present Perfect ense ( hì hiện tại ho n th nh) a/ Form:  I, We, They, You + have + past participle (V3)  He, She, It + has + past participle (V3 ( hể phủ ịnh: Haven't Hasn't V3, hể nghi vấn : Have has V3 ?) b. Usage:  hì Hiện tại ho n th nh diễn tả m t h nh ng v a mới xảy ra. Ex: I have just seen my sister in the park. She has finished her homework recently.  hì Hiện tại ho n th nh diễn tả m t h nh ng ư c lặp i lặp lại nhiều lần ở quá khứ. Ex: Daisy has read that novel sevaral times. I have seen "Titanic" three times.  hì Hiện tại ho n th nh diễn tả m t h nh ng bắt ầu t quá khứ m cịn kéo d i ến hiện tại v cĩ khả năng tiếp tục ở tương lai. Ex: Mary has lived in this house for ten years. They have studied English since 1990.  H nh ng xảy ra trong quá khứ m khơng biết rõ thời gian. Ex: I have gone to Hanoi. He has done his housework. c. Các phĩ t thường i kèm với thì H H l : Just, recently, lately : gần ây, v a mới Ever : ã t ng Never : chưa bao giờ Already : rồi Yet : chưa ince : t khi (thời iểm) For : khoảng (thời oạn) o far = until now = up yo now = up to the present: cho ến bây giờ. Lưu ý: các phĩ t n y chỉ ư c dùng kèm với thì H H trong các câu ơn. ối với câu cĩ t 2 mệnh ề trở lên hoặc trong m t oạn văn thì ng t phải ư c chia theo ngữ cảnh chứ khơng phụ thu c v o các phĩ t (xem thêm ở phần equence ị enses) Ex: He has just seen her. (but) He said that he had just seen her. I have already done my exercises. (but) When I came, they had already shown the film. Exercise 10. Use the verbs in the Present Perfect. Comment on the use of the Present Perfect. 1. I (see) that film. 2. We (have) four tests this semester. 3. I (be) here since seven o’clock. 4. We (be) here for two weeks. 5. I (meet) many people since I came here in June. Exercise 11. Use the verb in the Present Simple or in the Present Perfect. 1. Ann (want) to see you. You (not see) her for a long time. 2. “You (read) this book ?” “Yes.” “What you (think) of it ?” 3. “You (know) Eliza ?” “Yes.” “How long you (know) her ?” 4. “Where Nick (be) ?” “He just (go) out ?” 13
  14. 5. “Do you know where he (live) ?” No, he recently (move) to a new flat. I (not be) there yet. Exercise 12. Use the verb in the Past Simple or in The Present Perfect. 1. A: Have you ever been in Europe ? B: Yes, I (have). I (be) in Europe several times. I (be) in Europe last year. 2. You (not be) here for ages ! 3. A: You ever (play) football ? B: Yes, I A: Yes, I (play) when I (be) a schoolboy. 4. You already (drink) three cups of tea since I (sit) here. 5. We (study) English for four years now. V. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 4. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense ( Thì hiện tại ho n th nh tiếp diễn) a/ Form:  I, We, You, They + Have + been + V-ing  He, She, It + Has + been +V-ing b. Usage:  hì n y diển tả 1 h nh ng bắt ầu trong quá khứ v kéo d i liên tục ến hiện tại. Lưu ý: Khơng dùng thì n y với các ng t chỉ nhận thức, tri giác. Với loại ng t n y ta dùng Present Perfect (xem các ng t ã nêu trong thì hiện tại tiếp diễn) Ex: I have been studying french for five years. They have been living in this city since 1995 How long have you been waiting for her? Các từ hay đi kèm là: Since ( mốc thời gian), for ( khoảng thời gian) Exercise 13. Use the verbs in the Present Perfect Continuous. Comment on the use of the Present Perfect Continuous. 1. I (wait) for him for two hours. 2. This student (study) English for four years up to now. 3. It (rain) for two hours. 4. Come in, my dear boy. We ( expect) you. Exercise 14. Use the verbs in the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. 1. Mrs. Smith (work) in the library since 1983. 2. I (do) my homework for two hours, and I (not finish) yet. 3. I (wait) for him long and he (not come) yet. 4. A: What you (write) ? B: I (write) my essay. I (write) it all morning and I (not finish) it yet. A: I (finish) mine. + Supply the correct verb forms: the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous: 1. How long you (study) English? For 5 years. 2. I (wait) for two hours, but he (not come) yet. 3. They (live) in Ho Chi Minh City since 1975. 4. She (read) all the books written by Dickens. How many books you (read)? 5. He (not,be) here since Christmas, I wonder where he (live) since then. V I. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE 14
  15. VI.1. The Past Perfect Tense (Thì quá khứ hoàn thành/ Tiền quá khứ) a. Form: Subject + had +V3 (Negative form: S + Hadn't +V3 Interrogative form: Had + S + V3) b. Usage: Thì quá khứ hoàn thành diễn tả một hành động quá khứ xảy ra trước một thời gian quá khứ hoặc trước một hành động quá khứ khác. (Nếu trong câu có 2 hành động quá khứ, hành động nào xảy ra trước ta dùng Past Perfect, hành động nào sau ta dùng Simple Past) Ex: We had lived in Hue before 1975. When I got up this morning, my father had already left. After the children had finished their homework, they went to bed. It was the most difficult question that I had ever known VI.2. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense ( Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn) a.Form: S + had + been +V-ing b. Usage: Diễn tả một hành động quá khứ đã xảy ra và kéo dài cho đến khi hành động quá khứ thứ hai xảy ra (hành động thứ hai dùng Simple Past). Thường thường khoảng thời gian kéo dài được nêu rõ trong câu. Ex: The men had been playing cards for 3 hours before I came. They had been living in London for 10 years when I met them. Exercise 15. Use the verbs in the Past Perfect tense. Comment on the use of the Past Perfect. 1. He (be) in for about an hour when he heard the doorbell ring. 2. She (finish) packing by three o’clock. 3. I watched TV after I (do) my homework. 4. The match already (begin) when we got to the stadium. 5. The train (start) before we arrived at the station. Exercise 16. Use the verbs in the Past Simple or the Past Perfect. 1. His mother (be) not in. She (go) out half an hour. 2. She (not notice) that she (never see) that film before. 3. After the passengers (get) on, the bus (leave). 4. As soon as the boys (enter) the hall they (begin) to speak about books and writers. + Give the right forms of the verbs in brackets: Simple Past or Past Perfect. 1. They (go) home after they (finish) their work. 2. She said that she (already, see) Dr. Rice. 3. When we came to the stadium, the match (already, begin). 4. They told me they (not, eat) such kind of food before. 5. He (ask) why we (come) so early. 6. Before she (watch ) TV, she (do) her homework. + Give the right forms of the verbs in brackets: Past Tenses. 1. Yesterday John (go) to the store before he (go) home. 2. Our teacher (tell) us yesterday that he (visit) England in 1970 3. When John and I got to the theatre, the movie (start) already. 4. Before Alice (go) to sleep, she (call) her family. 5. When the phone (ring), I (have) dinner. 6. Daisy (agree) with other members in the last meeting. 7. What you (do) at 6 p.m. yesterday? 8. The little girl asked what (happen) to her ice-cream. 9. He (teach) in this school before he (leave) for England. 10. She (win) the gold medal in 1986. VII. FUTURE TENSES 15